Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinylchloride or with the corresponding initials PVC, is the vinyl chloride polymer. It is the most important polymer in the series obtained from vinyl monomers and is one of the most consumed plastic materials in the world.
Pure, it is a rigid material; it owes its application versatility to the possibility of being mixed also in high proportions to inorganic compounds and to plasticizing products, such as, for example, the esters of phthalic acid, which make it flexible and moldable. It is considered stable and safe in technological applications at room temperature, but extremely dangerous if burned or heated at high temperatures and in plants unsuitable for its treatment because of the presence of chlorine in the molecule, which can be released as HCl, such as dioxin, or chloride vinyl monomer.
Polyvinyl chloride was observed by chance on two occasions during the nineteenth century, first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and then in 1872 by Eugen Baumann. In both cases a solid white mass of polymer was found inside vinyl chloride bottles left exposed to sunlight.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Russian Ivan Ostromislenskij and the German Fritz Klatte of Griesheim-Elektron attempt at commercial exploitation of the product but were frustrated by the difficulty of working the material, too rigid and fragile.
In 1926, Waldo Semon of the B.F. Goodrich developed a technique to make PVC workable by mixing it with plasticizing additives. The resulting product, more flexible and easy to work, soon reached widespread use.
The first co-polymers based on polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl acetate were produced by the US Union Carbide in 1927; six years later, in Germany, IG Farben patented emulsion polymerization techniques.
In Italy, one of the main PVC producers was Montedison, which had its corresponding polymer and monomer production plants in the petrochemical plant of Porto Marghera, in Venice. The first company to start the industrial production of PVC in Italy was S. A. Ursus Gomma of Vigevano (PV) which, in 1939, built a new plant specifically for the processing of the new material. Until the 1990s Brescia was an important center for the production of PVC.
1. Do not use solvents or alkaline detergents that could damage the fabrics.
Avoid chemical detergents, aggressive solvents, rigid brushes and high pressure water, in order not to deteriorate the “first” “thin” surface often made of materials such as pvdf and fep, with functions, among others, of “self-cleaning”.
2. Remove the dirt in “surface” by washing with water, use non-aggressive cleaning products according to the supplier’s / manufacturer’s indications, using soft brushes, sponges and / or electronic cleaners.
Rinse thoroughly until all residues of detergents or soap have been completely eliminated.
Remove the most persistent dirt with the use of more concentrated cleaning detergents, it is important to follow the manufacturers instructions and / or carry out sample tests on small areas.
Remember to never scratch / scrape the surface finish. Rinse with water on the clean surface until you have eliminated any residue of the detergent used.
3. Dry completely with a dry cloth. Do not overheat the surface and do not dry with hot air, to avoid changes to the color of the fabric.
Carefully read the instructions provided by the detergent manufacturer.
4. Teloni Tosetto is able to supply the most suitable cleaning product to meet the requirements of the technical data sheet and safety data sheet.
Warning: when it is wet the fabric becomes very slippery, it is important that the workers use all the major precautions and safety systems.
The Municipal Tax on Advertising is a tax, in favor of the Municipalities, which weighs on the dissemination of advertising messages. Advertising messages are all messages disseminated through signs, taxable pursuant to art. 10 paragraph 1, lett. C of the law 28/12/2001, n. 448, signs, plaques, banners or any other means other than that subject to the right to public billposting.
Taxation takes place if the messages are displayed in public places or open to the public or that are visible from such places.
The Municipal Tax on Advertising must be paid primarily by the person (taxable person) who disposes in any way the means through which the advertising message is disseminated. The person who produces or sells the goods or provides the services object of the advertising is solidly obliged to pay the tax.
The calculation of the tax is determined on the basis of the surface of the minimum geometric plane figure in which the advertising medium is circumscribed, regardless of the number of messages contained therein.
The surfaces of less than one square meter are rounded up to the square meter and the fractions of it, over the first, half a square meter; no tax is applied for areas smaller than 300 square centimeters.
For advertising media having volumetric dimensions, the tax is calculated on the basis of the total surface resulting from the development of the minimum geometric solid in which the medium itself can be circumscribed.
Before the beginning of advertising, the taxable person is obliged to present to the Municipality or to the company to which the municipality delegates the collection of the tax, a specific declaration, can be cumulative, which must indicate the characteristics, the duration of the advertising and the location of the advertising media used.
The declaration must also be presented in cases of variation of advertising “which involve the modification of the exposed surface or the type of advertising” carried out with consequent new imposition; the Municipality is required to proceed with the adjustment between the amount due following the new declaration and the amount paid for the same period.
The declaration of annual advertising also applies to subsequent years, provided that there is no change in the declared elements resulting in a different amount of tax due; this advertisement is extended with the payment of the relative tax made by January 31 of the reference year, provided that no termination report is presented within the same term.
If the presentation of the declaration is omitted, the publicity referred to in Legislative Decree 507 is presumed in any case with effect from 1 January in which it was established; for other cases the presumption operates from the first day of the month in which the assessment was carried out.
For the failure, late or unfaithful presentation of the declaration, in addition to the payment of the tax, a surcharge (from 100% to 200% with a minimum of € 51.00) as well as determined by Local authority (pursuant to Legislative Decree 471/472/473 of 18.12.1997 on the subject).
The surcharge due to failure or unfaithful denunciation is reduced to a quarter if the payment is made no later than 60 (sixty) days from the date of notification of the Notice of Assessment.
For the omission or late payment of the tax or of the individual installments, a surcharge equal to 30% of the tax or the law whose payment has been omitted or delayed is due, regardless of what referred to in the previous paragraph.
ADVERTISING TAX FOR PUBBLICITY ON OWNED VEHICLES
Article 13 of Legislative Decree 507 of 15/11/1993
For advertising carried out on vehicles owned by the company or used for transport on its behalf, the tax is payable per calendar year to the municipality where the business is located or any other dependency thereof, or to the municipality where his agents or agents are domiciled who, on the date of the first of January of each year, or after the year of registration, have supplied these vehicles, according to the following tariff:
The tax is not also due for the indication, on the vehicles used for transport, of the company and the address of the company that carries out the transport activity, also on behalf of third parties, limited only to the useful area occupied by such indications (5 / d).
It is obligatory to keep the attestation of the payment of the tax and to show it on request to authorized agents.
PUBLICITY TAX ON THIRD PARTY VEHICLES
The fee is calculated based on the surface of the minimum geometric flat figure in which the advertising is circumscribed regardless of the number of messages contained therein and the value per square meter depends on the municipality where the company is carrying out the advertising message.
|I||Over 500,000 inhabitant||
|II||From 100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants||
|III||From 30,000 to 100,000 inhabitants||
|IV||From 10,000 up to 30,000 inhabitants||
|V||Less than 10,000 inhabitants||
|The provincial capital municipalities can not be placed in a lower class than III.|